Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Slavery in Ozark County, Missouri: 1860

     As I reviewed the comments from our last post, it came as a surprise to some people that slaveholders not only fought for the Confederacy, or the Southern cause, but Union citizens participated and profited from the dreadful institution of slavery. I choose Ozark County, Missouri, for two reasons. First, I grew up in this county. Secondly, it is a county with a small population and a wonderful microcosm of the Ozarks.

    As we look at the U.S. Slave Schedule & U. S. Census and compare names with Civil War records for Ozark County.  We discover 5 of the 7 slaveholders in Ozark County slaveholders served as Union officers or soldiers in the upcoming Civil War.  Yes, 5 is a small number of slaveholders; but when we look at the percentage, it's a little over 71% of the 1850, Ozark County slaveholders serving in the Union Army in the upcoming Civil War. Again, as I have stated, this percentage is puzzling to some people, and it also surprised me too.

Ozark County Slavery in 1860
    Let's take a look at the 1860 U.S. Slave Schedule for Ozark County for a few statistics.
1860 Ozark County, Missouri, Slave Schedule

3rd – 9th of September, 1860
June 12th, 1860 1
As of December 3rd, 1860:
Political Alliances:
  • Number of Union Supporters or Union Soldiers as Slaveholders: 7
  • Number of Confederate Supporters or Soldiers as Slaveholders: 2
  • Number of Slaveholders of Undetermined Alliances: 2
  • Population of  Free Inhabitants in Ozark County: 2,447
  • Population of People held in Slavery in Ozark County: 43 
  • Slavery Population in Ozark County: 1.075 %
  • Total Households in Ozark County: 409
  • Slave-holding Households: 11 (10 men and 1 woman)
  • Number of Slave Houses: 13 (2 owners have 2 dwellings on their premises.)
Slaves: Sex & Age:

  • Number of Male Slaves: 21
  • Number of Female Slaves: 22
  • Number of Adults in Slavery: 13
  • Number of Children or Minors in Slavery: 30
  • Percentage of Children in Slavery vs. Adults   69.76% are Minors.
  • Households holding Slave Minors without viable Parent: 3
 Comparison Across the State-line in Marion County, Arkansas:
  • Percentage of Households Practicing Slavery in Ozark County: 2.7 %
  • Race - Black: 100%    &   Mulatto 0%  
  • Percentage of Households Practicing Slavery in Marion County: 4.6 % 
  • Race - Black: 72%    &   Mulatto 28%
   While the percentage of Minors vs. Adults held in slavery seems to be high (70.45%), the percentage closely compares to the percentage of children (72%) held in slavery across the State-line in Marion County, Arkansas.  But the comparison stops with the close ranking percentage because there are 71 Minors slaves in Marion County.  Additionally, the number of Mulattoes & Females held in bondage are also disproportionate in Marion County.  This will be the subject for a future post on Ozarks' History.

Slave-holding Households:

James M. Cain: Union CW Soldier 
3 Slaves (2 Minors)
Sex          Race       Age        Name    Place of Birth 
Male     – Black – Age: 24    Isaac      Tennessee
Female – Black – Age: 14    Dice       Tennessee
Male     – Black – Age:   9    Pleasant Tennessee

Charles D. Cain: Union CW Soldier 
1 Slave
Male – Black – Age: 23      Robert      Tennessee

James Irving Holt: Union CW Soldier-  Missouri/Ozark County Home Guard, 1st Lt., Company A, Capt. Stone's Cavalry
1 Slave
Male – Black – Age: 21     Peter    Tennessee

John H. Marsh: Union CW Soldier - Ozark County Home Guard, Independent Company, formed in Springfield, Missouri
1 Slave (1 Minor & No Viable Parent)
Female – Black – Age: 9  Mary Marsh   Tennessee

J. C. Miller: Union CW Soldier
1 Slave
Male – Black – Age: 30    William   South Carolina

Sharlott [Charlotte] Hubbard: Charlotte Emma Whitley Hubbard (widowed) married Sterling Davis Shipley (CSA) Sept. 12, 1860, in Ozark County    
11 Slaves in 2 Houses (8 Minors)
Male     – Black – Age: 39        Wesley     North Carolina
Female – Black – Age: 21         Anthony  Arkansas
Female – Black – Age: 26         Mary       Arkansas
Male     – Black – Age: 12         Martha     Arkansas
Male     – Black – Age:   8         Elias        Arkansas
Male     – Black – Age:   7         Thomas   Tennessee
Female – Black – Age:   5          Sam         Missouri
Female – Black – Age:   5          Harriet     Missouri  
Female – Black – Age:   4          Nancy      Missouri
Female – Black – Age:   3          Clenancy  Missouri
Male     – Black – Age:   2 months Riley    Missouri

William G. Pumphrey:  
1 Slave
Female – Black – Age: 18  Mary A.    Arkansas

James R. Stone:  Union CW Soldier - Ozark County Home Guard, Independent Company, formed in Springfield, Missouri
4 Slaves (3 Minors)
Female – Black – Age: 39   Matilda     Tennessee (Possible Mother)
Female – Black – Age: 11   Misty        Missouri
Female – Black – Age:   7   Hannah     Missouri
Male     – Black – Age:   1   George      Missouri

Robert B. Stone: Union Civil War Captain
1 Slave
Male – Black – Age: 18   Stephen   Virginia

Robt. W. Torgann
4 Slaves (4 Minors & No Viable Parent)
Male    – Black – Age: 14   Jonas      Virginia
Female – Black – Age: 12   Juli         Virginia
Female – Black – Age:   9   George   Virginia
Male     – Black – Age:   9   Eli          Virginia

Job [Joseph] Teverbaugh: Confederate Alliance
15 Slaves in 2 Houses (10 Minors)
Male     – Black – Age: 45    Lewis     Kentucky       
Female – Black – Age: 40    Mariah    Kentucky 
Male     – Black – Age: 20    Addam   Missouri
Male     – Black – Age: 17    Jacob      Missouri
Male     – Black – Age: 14    George    Missouri
Female – Black – Age: 12    Mariah     Missouri
Female – Black – Age: 10   Clarinda    Missouri
Male     – Black – Age:   6   Gifford      Missouri
Male     – Black – Age:   5   Noah         Missouri
Female – Black – Age:    2   Emaline    Missouri
Female – Black – Age:  28   Mary        Arkansas
Male    – Black – Age:  12    Joseph     Arkansas
Female – Black – Age:   8    Harriet     Arkansas
Male     – Black – Age:   6   Trius         Arkansas
Female – Black – Age:   4    Sarah       Arkansas

Where Did They Go After Emancipation?
    It is always a goal to trace-down African Americans and follow their migration after emancipation. So, we'll do a small case study of Joseph "Job" Teverbaugh household in St. Luger, Missouri, on the Big North Fork of the White River.
Biographical & Historical Note:
    Colonel William Monks references Joseph "Job" Teverbaugh in Monks' book, History of Southern Missouri and Northern Arkansas: Being an Account of the Early Settlements, the Civil War, the Ku-Klux, and Times of Peace Mr. Teverbaugh had Confederate alliances, and he was in direct opposition to the Union Col. Monks.  During the Civil War, Confederate forces detain Col. Monks as a prisoner, and Teverbaugh held significant sway over Col. Monks' fate.

        Joseph [Job] Teverbaugh who resided in Ozark county, a merchant and the owner of about
twenty negroes, who had been well acquainted with the author from his boyhood, brought up the conversation as to what disposition they thought ought to be made of the author. 
       The author [Monks] could easily hear all the conversation inside of the guard line. Many opinions were expressed. Quite a number said, "Hang him outright." That was the only way to get shut of the Union men, to make short work of it, and forever rid the country of that element. 2 
 Shop Ozarks' History Bookstore at Amazon

 1850  & the Teverbaughs
    As we saw in the last post, Job Teverbaugh is listed in 1850 U.S. Slave Census holding 4 Slaves including 3 Minors:
1850 U.S. Slave Census 3
  •     Female – Black – Age: 19 [potential mother?]
  •     Male – Mulatto – Age: 4
  •     Female – Black – Age: 3 
  •     Female – Black – Age: 6 months
    This nameless, young 19-year-old lady is a potential mother because of three (3) children of a viable age within the household. If they are her children, there are at least two (2) potential fathers.
If this black female is the mother of the 4-year-old male, she could have potentially conceived her firstborn son at 14 years of age. This 4-year-old male child is listed as a Mulatto or mixed race. Therefore, we know he has some white lineage, but his paternity is not given.
   The other two (2) female children are 3 years and 6 months of age, and the children have a black father. The father is not listed in the household; therefore, it is not a nuclear family. Whatever the dynamics are, we are looking at a fractured, African-American family.

  1860 & the Teverbaughs

 In reviewing the 1860 Slave Census, we can see two (2) apparent families represented:

1st - Mary       What's her last name?

1860 U.S. Slave Census 4
      In the 1860 Census, we can see a 28 years old lady listed as Mary, and she has a potential of 4 children: Joseph,  Harriet, Trius, and Sarah. Also, all five listed are from Arkansas.  
        In comparing the 10-year difference of the 1850 & 1860 Slave Schedule, we can see a 29 to 30-year-old female in the household. But some of the children's ages do not match. If so, her potential children (a 14-year-old boy, 13-year-old girl, and 11-year-old girl) are also vacant from the 1860 Census.  If we follow the same parameters of age and sex of this small family, it is difficult to determine if this family if this is the same African-American mother and children in 1850. Whether this is the same family or not, the father of the children is still not present.

      Currently, I cannot find Mary and her children in the 1870 U.S. Census.  Since Mary & children are from Arkansas, I am reviewing potential residences in Arkansas to see if I can trace this family.  The reason for the Arkansas investigation is an estimation or guess.  Also, many members of the Job Teverbaugh family can be traced across the Missouri Arkansas State-line into Bennett's Bayou area of Baxter County and the Wild Haws & Violet Hill communities of Izard County, Arkansas. So far I have found nothing on Mary.
    Another reason for an unsuccessful discovery for Mary and her children is due to the last name. Mary could have a name change due to a marriage, or she dropped her owner's name of Teverbaugh. If she changed her last name, Mary could adopt a prior or new last name.  This is not uncommon, and Tera W. Hunter details in her 2017 book, Bound in Wedlock, a few of the scenarios that could have played a part in the change of name. It may be a reason for our unsuccessful attempt to find Mary and her family:

      …slavery’s legacy of involuntary unions and forced separations continued to affect the lives 
      of ex-slaves.  The most severe, repeated disruptions from slave sales and separation of families 
      were evident in what women were called by others or how they identified themselves.  Name 
      changes also could symbolize the treacherous and unstable lives experienced in bondage and 
      after freedom that led to serial relationships...many women had many surnames over the course 
     of [their] life, partly the result of multiple slave-ownerships and partly the result of multiple 
     conjugal relationships. 5
2nd - Lewis/Louis Teverbaugh
    One of the frustrations I encounter is the lack of existing detailed documentation for African-Americans during this time.  Fortunately, in tracking down the Lewis Teverbaugh and his family, they used the same last name from Ozark County.

1860 U.S. Slave Census 6
     Lewis, age 45, and Mariah, age 40, are both from KentuckyLewis and Mariah have 8 children listed: Adam, Jacob, George, Mariah, Clarinda, Gifford, Noah, and, Emalin. 
Louis Teverbaugh
     Fortunately, a few records are available of Lewis Teverbaugh and his son, George.  First, we discover Lewis and George in Springfield, Missouri, in the 1870 U.S. Census. The Teverbaughs are listed in the Campbell Township in Greene County, Missouri.

1870 U.S. Slave Census 7
  • Louis Teverbaugh       55  Male     Black    Works at Mill
  • May Teverbaugh         25 Female  Black    Washing & Ironing
  • George Teverbaugh     01 Male     Black
  • George Teverbaugh     25 Male     Black     Wood Chopper
  • Francis Teverbaugh     21 Female  Black    Washing & Ironing
  • William Teverbaugh    01 Male     Black 
1870 U.S. Slave Census 8
      We can also find another sister Mariah Teverbaugh Johnson, and she is married to Moses Johnson in Springfield, Missouri. Additionally, Noah Teverbaugh is also listed living in the Johnson household, and he is documented as an invalid.
     Louis and George are referenced in the Springfield, Missouri, newspapers. Additionally, Louis Teverbaugh is listed in the Springfield, Missouri, Address Book.
Springfield, Missouri, City Directory, 1890 9

       Before Louis Teverbaugh passed away, he recorded his will in Greene County, Missouri, on July 6, 1891. In a two-page document, Louis lists his children and their inheritance. The list matches the 1860 U.S. Slave Census.
Greene County, Missouri Probate 1833 – 1899 10
  • Son - Adam Teverbaugh: $1.00 (living on East Division Street in Springfield, Missouri)
  • Son  - Jacob Teverbaugh: $1.00 (living on East Division Street)
  • Son - George Teverbaugh:$1.00
  • Daughter - Mariah Teverbaugh Johnson: $1.00 (living in Springfield, Missouri)
  • Daughter - Emma Teverbaugh McCraken -(living at 976 Broad Street in Springfield, Missouri) All earthly possessions including 140 feet of the lot on Weaver Street and extending east 140 feet on Broad Street. (Wow, she must have been the favorite daughter!)
Reflection: My Honest Assessment (Yes, My Opinion)
     I decided to start writing on the issue of Slavery in the Ozarks in October of 2019. Little did I know that such a topic would become a divisive and polarizing issue in 2020. I have also come to realize this topic can give a stigma to a writer if one does not fall within a certain demographic, but I am going to continue because it is important. Since I grew up on the Missouri/Arkansas State-line, I feel compelled to examine this troubled era in the land I call home.

     Many times, parsing of demographics can polarize opposing sides. Though we may not be perfect, disdaining our unity, or Union, will drive our nation to the precipice of another ideological divide and, God forbid, another Civil War.  Nevertheless, I will not change my focus. I am not trying to be a sounding piece for any political party or ideology.  I enjoy going back and looking at the primary & secondary documents.  To the chagrin of a few with whom I have shared this information, I have been told either my facts are wrong or it does not fit the commonly held narrative. Other reviewers have supported my research. I endeavor to give historical insight within my posts. However, when I give my opinion on this website, I will commonly entitle my opinion as a Reflection in my posts.

     After studying the facts of Ozark slavery, its characters, circumstances, and reasons are not always clearly distinguished at the onset. To me, the topics of Slavery and the Civil War seem like a mud-puddle freshly trounced by a 10-year-old boy.

    In the past 10 months, I have discovered and parsed over forgotten & misspelled names, happened across brier-infested farms & forsaken plantations, and visited the grave-sites of nameless bondsmen, half-known freedmen, former slave owners, helpless mothers & their children, mournful patriarchs, and participants constrained to act out of dire circumstances. I have smiled in admiration of the human spirit, cried over the depravity, and shook my head in the attempt to understand the era. Yet, every time I have left these plots of earth speechless, and I have shuffled away in awe over the vast circumstances and dynamics that tried the souls of our ancestors.

Human Trafficking
    There is one more caveat I would like to add concerning slavery. I have come to view this practice more than making someone work against their will and choice. Slavery is theft, robbery of the soul, and completely dehumanizing. In essence, it is also Human Trafficking. Though all is deplorable, one prime commodity troubles me: slave children of the era. Furthermore, I have read and witnessed sources of the era, and it was not confined to only "the South." Northern citizens, yes those above the Mason-Dixon Line, relied on the commodity of women baring children, and some of these children farmed out and sold at the age of 1 to 2-years-old.

    I have gone to bed many times discovering 2 and 3-year-old children living in a white home without the solace of a mother's love or a father's guidance in their lives. Honestly, I have tossed myself out of slumber with the most nauseous feeling in the pit of my stomach after reading such accounts. Simply, the institution of slavery negated any semblance of a nuclear family for the African-Americans. I believe slavery is such an evil that it could only be hatched in the bowels of Hell.

     It is not my goal to enflame past wounds, but I want to focus on the lessons of our history. I believe our American History cannot be summed up in a sound bite, news report, or an eye-pleasing graphic.  Today, some people look at the intricate portrait of history, and they try to reconstruct or revise it with a broad brush of assumptions. While on the contrary, history is a multifaceted masterpiece that should be appreciated for its devious flaws, glorious shortcomings, and events participated & interrupted by our Heavenly Father's influence. As I am endeavoring to study slavery, it reveals our devious human heart, no matter our political aspirations or cultural & geographic alliances.
Giving Names to the Nameless,
Giving a Voice to the Voiceless, Even in Human Trafficking
    In our future posts, we will begin to discover how Slavery & Human Trafficking was an integrated commodity of the Antebellum Period, and it was also in the Ozarks. As we look at different Ozark counties, we can see how profit and pleasure drove the market.  But in all of this, I have found small solace in Names.

     Names are identifying markers; it is who we are. It is one reason I love to visit cemeteries and read names out loud. I run my fingers over the etchings in stone or pull the overgrown grass & weeds from old field-stones. It helps me remember their names. In many of the slave documents, the names of the victims are not present, just the owners. Sometimes we discover the first name; and sometimes, we uncover a full name. But every time I find a name, I am compelled to verbally speak their name.

    As I research history, I continually discover Human Trafficking was not only an American problem, it is a world problem even today. The prophet Jeremiah in the Bible surmises it as a heart problem:
        The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately sick; who can understand it?
                                                                                                            Jeremiah 17:9 ESV

   So I ask you, Dear Reader, let us all seek the Father in Heaven who can bring light to our heart, break the chains of sin & bondage, and learn the lessons of our Ozarks' History.

1. 1860 U.S. Census: Falling Spring, Ozark, Missouri; Page: 414; Family History Library Film: 803637.
2. Monks, William. A History of Southern Missouri and Northern Arkansas: Being an Account of the Early Settlements, the Civil War, the Ku-Klux, and Times of Peace. West Plains Journal Company, 1907. p 60.
3. 1850 U.S. Federal Census - Slave Schedules; The National Archive in Washington DC; Washington, DC; NARA Microform Publication: M432; Title: Seventh Census Of The United States, 1850; Record Group: Records of the Bureau of the Census; Record Group Number: 29.
4. 1860 U.S. Census: Falling Spring, Ozark, Missouri, Page: 414.
5. Hunter, Tera W. Bound in Wedlock: Slave and Free Black Marriage in the Nineteenth Century. Harvard University Press, 2017. p. 277.
6. 1860 U.S. Census: Falling Spring, Ozark, Missouri, Page: 414.
7. 1870 U.S. Census: Campbell, Greene, Missouri; Roll: M593_777; Page:121B.
8. Ibid.
9. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995: Springfield, Missouri, City Directory, 1890 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.
10. Missouri, Wills and Probate Records, 1766-1988 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2015. Author: Missouri. Probate Court (Greene County); Probate Place: Greene, Missouri.

No comments: